Apple mac os lion

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Mac OS X Lion

Рабочий стол Mac OS X 10.7 «Lion»
Разработчик Apple
Семейство ОС OS X
Основана на Mac OS X 10.6
Исходный код Закрытый (с открытыми программными компонентами)
Первый выпуск 20 июля 2011 года
Последняя версия 10.7.4 (HT1222) (9 мая 2012 года)
Последняя тестовая версия 10.7.5 (12A269) (10 июля 2012 года)
Метод обновления Apple Software Update
Поддерживаемые языки Многоязычный
Поддерживаемые платформы x86-64
Тип ядра Гибридное ядро
Интерфейс Marble
Лицензия APSL и Apple EULA
Состояние Неактуальное
Предыдущая Mac OS X 10.6
Следующая OS X 10.8
Веб-сайт apple.com/ru/macosx/lion/

Mac OS X Lion (версия 10.7) — операционная система для персональных компьютеров и серверов, разработанная Apple; восьмая по счету версия OS X. У Lion более 250 новых функций [1] .

Продажи финальной версии начались 20 июля — в третьем квартале 2011 года, как и было объявлено заранее. Операционная система доступна в Mac App Store [2] , за определенную плату — $29,99 (

877 рублей). Корпорация Apple сообщила о продаже более 1 миллиона копий OS X Lion в первый же день его продаж.

Содержание

Аппаратная поддержка [ править | править код ]

Первая версия операционной системы Mac OS с изначальной поддержкой команды TRIM для SSD накопителей (в Mac OS X 10.6 поддержка команды TRIM появилась только после выхода обновления 10.6.6 — в момент выпуска первых MacBook Pro с предустановленными SSD накопителями). Стоит заметить, что команду TRIM в Mac OS X поддерживают только SSD накопители Apple, SSD накопители сторонних производителей не поддерживают команду TRIM в Mac OS X в силу искусственно созданных программных ограничений [3] . Но на сегодняшний день найдено решение для самостоятельного включения команды TRIM в Mac OS X 10.6.6 Snow Leopard (или выше) и Mac OS X 10.7 Lion (или выше) для всех SSD накопителей поддерживающих команду TRIM на уровне «железа» [3] .

Системные требования [ править | править код ]

  • Процессор x86-64 (Mac с процессором Core 2 Duo или лучше) [4]
  • DVD-дисковод (или Удаленный диск), USB или Firewire. На DVD-диске есть дополнительные программы (однако, в феврале-апреле2011 годапредварительная версия может быть установлена непосредственно из его образа диска на локальном или сетевом жестком диске)
  • 2 Гб ОЗУ

Новшества по сравнению с 10.6 [ править | править код ]

Большинство нововведений были анонсированы на «Back to the Mac», однако будут открыты к выпуску релиза.

  • Адресная книга — теперь используется интерфейс, схожий с iPad-версией. Введена поддержка Yahoo! и FaceTime.
  • iCal — обновленный пользовательский интерфейс, поддержка Full-Screen(полноэкранного) режима
  • Emoji — введена поддержка уникальных иконок Emoji.
  • Resume — приложения открываются на том же месте, где пользователь закрывает его.
  • Mac App Store — магазин приложений, который создан по образцу App Store под iOS. Как и в мобильной iOS, это обеспечит возможность для клиентов открывать программы одним нажатием кнопки установки и одной кнопкой обновлять все или выбранные уже установленные приложения. Mac App Store был выпущен для Mac OS X Snow Leopard 6 января 2011 и был в комплекте с Mac OS X 10.6.6.
  • Launchpad — панель с иконками приложений, которые можно организовывать и объединять в папки.
  • Полноэкранный режим — новая версия Mac OS X позволяет работать с развернутыми на весь экран приложениями, при этом пользователю доступна возможность переключения между окнами запущенных программ и в обычном режиме просмотра.
  • Mission Control — просмотр текущих приложений, интеграции других Mac OS функций, включая Exposé, Spaces, Dashboard, и полноэкранные приложения.
  • Multi-touch жесты как в iOS (поддерживаются Magic Mouse, Magic Trackpad и MacBook Late 2009 и новее).
  • Auto Save — автоматическое сохранение документов, поэтому пользователям не придется беспокоиться о ручном управлении документами.
  • Game Center — компьютерная версия Game Center в iOS.
  • Функция «Возобновить» — функция автоматического восстановления приложений до того состояния, в котором они находились на момент выключения или перезагрузки компьютера или же на момент выхода из программы.
  • Скрывающиеся скроллбары — полосы прокрутки будут находиться в области содержания окна и скрываться когда прокрутка не происходит (как в iOS).
  • iChat теперь поддерживает вход в Yahoo! Messenger. Пользователи с помощью iChat могут общаться с другими пользователями, использующие Yahoo! аккаунты.
  • TextEdit получил новую графическую панель с возможностью выбора шрифта и выделения текста. TextEdit также поддерживает автоматическое сохранение файлов.
  • Lion Recovery Disk Assistant — функция восстановления системы. Позволяет восстанавливать диски и переустанавливать ОС без физического диска.
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В данной версии OS X заимствованы некоторые идеи, которые были реализованы в планшете iPad.

24 февраля 2011 года, когда Apple продемонстрировали новую ОС в действии, были отмечены следующие новые функции и возможности OS X Lion:

  • Новая версия Mail 5 поддерживает автоматическую группировку связанных сообщений, улучшенный механизм поиска, поддержку Microsoft Exchange 2010 и полноэкранный режим.
  • AirDrop — простой механизм копирования файлов между различными устройствами Mac с помощью беспроводного интерфейса, который не требует настройки.
  • Versions — функция автоматического сохранения различных версий документа, что позволяет отслеживать процесс внесения изменений в документы и возвращаться к их предыдущему состоянию.
  • FileVault — средства шифрования данных на локальных и внешних накопителях.
  • Safari с полноэкранным режимом и движком WebKit2.

Исчезнувшие приложения [ править | править код ]

  • Front Row убран из-за редкого использования Mac как медиацентр.
  • Java Runtime Environment устанавливается по требованию пользователя.
  • Adobe Flash Player устанавливается пользователем вручную.
  • Rosetta убрана из-за устаревания платформы PowerPC.
  • iSync
  • Удалённая установка Mac OS X заменена на установку OS X из MAS.
  • Apple USB Modem

OS X Lion Server [ править | править код ]

OS X Lion Server имеет поддержку управления компьютерами Mac с операционной системой OS X Lion, а также портативными устройствами iPhone, iPad и iPod touch.

Mac OS X 10.7 Lion

A version of the macOS operating system
Developer Apple Inc. OS family Source model Closed, with open source components Released to
manufacturing July 20, 2011 ; 8 years ago ( 2011-07-20 ) [2] Latest release 10.7.5 (Build 11G63) / October 4, 2012 ; 7 years ago ( 2012-10-04 ) [3] Update method Apple Software Update Platforms x86-64 Kernel type Hybrid (XNU) License Apple Public Source License (APSL) and Apple end-user license agreement (EULA) Preceded by Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard Succeeded by OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion Official website Apple — OS X Lion — The world’s most advanced OS. at the Wayback Machine (archived June 9, 2012) Support status Unsupported as of about October 2014; [4] iTunes support ended in September 2015
Part of a series on
macOS

Mac OS X Lion [5] (version 10.7) [6] is the eighth major release of Mac OS X (now named macOS), Apple’s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.

A preview of Mac OS X 10.7 Lion was publicly shown at the «Back to the Mac» Apple Special Event on October 20, 2010. It brought many developments made in Apple’s iOS, such as an easily navigable display of installed applications, to the Mac, and includes support for the Mac App Store, as introduced in Mac OS X Snow Leopard version 10.6.6. [7] [8] On February 24, 2011, the first developer’s preview of Lion (11A390) was released to subscribers to the Apple Developer program. [9] Other developer previews were subsequently released, with Lion Preview 4 (11A480b) being released at WWDC 2011. [10]

Lion was released to manufacturing on July 1, 2011, [11] followed by its final release via the Mac App Store on July 20, 2011. Apple reported over one million Lion sales on the first day of its release. [12] As of October 2011 [update] , Mac OS X Lion had sold over six million copies worldw >[13]

Lion is the final release whose development was overseen by Bertrand Serlet, cons >[14]

Contents

Release and distribution [ edit ]

On June 6, 2011, at the Apple Worldw >[15]

Apple d >[16] [17] The only prior version of OS X that supports the Mac App Store is Snow Leopard, which implied that any machines that support Lion currently running Tiger or Leopard would first have to be upgraded to Snow Leopard, as opposed to allowing a direct upgrade to Lion.

Apple later announced two alternative distribution mechanisms for the benefit of users without broadband Internet access: in-store downloads at retail Apple Stores, and a USB flash drive containing the OS, priced at US$69, available through the online Apple Store beginning in August. [18] On August 4, 2011, Apple started to take orders for Mac OS X Lion’s USB installation flash drives for $69.99. [19]

The Server portion of Lion is available as a separate download from the Mac App Store for US$49.99, which is in addition to the purchase price of Lion itself. [20]

In July 2012, Lion was removed from the Mac App Store and retail Apple stores following the release of OS X Mountain Lion. [21] Following the removal of Lion from the Mac App Store, customers could still purchase Lion by phone at the reduced price of $20. [22] In October 2013, Lion was returned to the Apple Store website concurrently with Mountain Lion following the release of OS X Mavericks for the convenience of users who cannot run Mavericks on older Mac models. [23]

Hardware support [ edit ]

The first developer preview of Lion added TRIM support for Sol >[24]

System requirements [ edit ]

  • x86-64CPU (64-bit Macs, with an Intel Core 2 Duo, Intel Core i5, Intel Core i7, or Xeon processor.) [16][25]
  • At least 2 GB of memory [26]
  • Mac OS X 10.6.6 or later (Mac OS X 10.6.8 is recommended) [26]
  • 7 GB of available space [26]
  • AirDrop is supported on the following Mac models: [26] MacBook Pro (late 2008 or newer), MacBook Air (late 2010 or newer), MacBook (late 2008 or newer), iMac (early 2009 or newer), Mac Mini (m >New or changed features [ edit ]

Some new features were announced at the «Back to the Mac» keynote in October 2010, and the Apple website was updated in February 2011, with more details. Other features were announced at the WWDC 2011 keynote or on Apple’s Mac OS X Lion Web site after the keynote. Apple states that there are over 250 new or changed features in Lion, including:

  • Address Book uses an iPad-like user interface. It also includes improved Yahoo support and FaceTime calling. [27]
  • AirDrop – Lion-to-Lion direct file sharing via Wi-Fi Direct, with no wireless access point required. [28]
  • Address space layout randomization – Address space layout randomization (ASLR), a security technique that puts important data in unpredictable locations, making it harder to target known weaknesses, is available for 32-bit applications, and «has been improved for all applications», in Lion. [29]
  • Apple Push Notification Service – Send over-the-air alerts, such as news updates or social networking status changes, using Apple’s Push Notification service to applications that support APNS. APNS allows Mac OS X Lion and iOS clients to receive push changes to items such as mail, calendar and contacts from a configured OS X Lion Server. [30]
  • Auto-correction behaves much like on iOS devices, displaying an iOS-like popup box. [31]
  • Auto Save – As in iOS, documents in applications written to use Auto Save are saved automatically so users do not have to worry about manually managing their documents. The Auto Save feature significantly alters traditional workflow patterns and is a controversial addition to the system. [32][33]
  • Emoji support – Apple has added a new Emoji font commonly used in chat to express >[31][34]
  • Exposé in the Dock, a way of activating Exposé for a single application from the Dock, a feature added in Mac OS X 10.6, [35] is altered. One must double-tap with two fingers on a dock icon to initiate single-application Exposé, or simply right-click or control-click and select Show All Windows.
  • FaceTime comes bundled with Lion. [17]
  • FileVault offers full disk encryption and added security with XTS-AES 128 data encryption. Support for FileVault on external hard drives has also been added. [36]
  • Finder improvements – Finder search allows multiple search criteria to be specified without creating a smart folder, Finder search offers suggestions, files can be grouped by various attributes, and one can merge files under two folders with the same name – a prompt appears asking to replace or keep both files. [37][38] The navigation s >[vague] or volume (by default; there is a hack to still add the old ability), instead it shows a grey standard map icon.
  • Font Book 3 – Font Book 3 prov >[34]
  • Full-screen apps – Native, system-w >[39] However, full screen mode is not supported for dual screen setups.
  • High-quality multilingual speech voices – users can download new high-quality voices in more than forty languages and dialects. [40][41]
  • iCal has an updated user interface, an annual view, and support for a full-screen view. [42][43]
  • iChat has support for logging into Yahoo! Messenger. Users can audio- and v >[44][45]
  • Languages/Localization – Arabic, Czech, Turkish and Hungarian are added as full system languages, to make the total number of twenty-two languages available in Mac OS X. [46]
  • Launchpad – An application launcher that displays an iOS-like icon gr >[47]
  • Mac App Store – An application store built in the image of the iOS App Store. Like in iOS, it prov >[8][48][49] Despite being announced as a future feature of Lion, the Mac App Store was released for Mac OS X Snow Leopard on January 6, 2011, as it was bundled with the Mac OS X 10.6.6 update. [50]
  • Mail 5 – Uses an iPad-like user interface, has a fullscreen-optimized view, uses chronological «Conversations» to organize messages, [51] and supports Exchange 2010 (but not through the Exchange ActiveSync protocol, as iOS). [52]
  • Mission Control replaces the «All windows» Exposé feature. It gives an overview of all running applications just like «All windows» but groups windows from the same application. At the top of the screen it gives quick access to the Dashboard, Spaces, and running full-screen applications. [8][53]
  • Multi-touch gestures – Similar to iOS, additional gestures performed using a multi-touch input device (e.g. Magic Mouse, Magic Trackpad) allow the user to scroll, swipe to different pages, and enter Mission Control. [54] While this is not the first official multi-touch support for Mac OS X, it has been expanded; other frameworks, such as Lux, [55] have already created multi-touch support.
  • Multi-User Screen Sharing – The built-in Screen Sharing feature allows remote users to log into a separate user account from the one that is currently logged in. While one user is logged into a machine, a second user can log into the same machine remotely, seeing their own desktop and user environment. [56][57]
  • Preview gains several features, including full-screen support and the ability to sign a document just by holding a signed piece of paper up to the camera. [58][59]
  • Profile Manager prov >[60]
  • QuickTime reincorporates some features from QuickTime Pro. New features cited include Copy/Paste, Insert Clip, Crop V >[59]
  • Recovery Partition – Apple has introduced a recovery partition that includes utilities generally found on the OS X discs. This partition permits the user to restore their computer to its original factory state. If the partition were to become damaged or otherwise not available, such as with a new drive, a new copy of OS X Lion can be installed over the internet. [61][62]
  • Resume – Applications resume in the same state when re-opened as already seen in iOS. [63]
  • Safari – With full-screen mode and the new WebKit2layout engine. [64][65]
  • System Information – This feature is a re-design of System Profiler, which has been completely altered with new views which display graphical information on displays, storage devices, memory usage along with other hardware information. The previous layout remains available by clicking «System Report». Early builds of Lion also used System Information as a replacement for «About This Mac», [66] although the final release reinstated the version of this dialog box found in Snow Leopard.
  • Terminal has extra features, including full screen mode.
  • TextEdit gains a new graphical toolbar with font selection and text highlighting. The new TextEdit also supports Apple’s new automatic file saving and versions technologies. [67][68]
  • Versions – Time Machine-like saving and browsing of past versions of documents for applications written to use Versions. [32]
  • Vertical text – Lion supports vertical layouts for East Asian languages. [31][68]

The complete list was on Apple’s website but has since been taken down; it can now be found on the Internet Archive. [69] The developer release notes may also be of interest. [70]

Server features [ edit ]

  • Wiki Server 3 – Making it easier to collaborate, share, and exchange information. Users can quickly switch between a server’s home page, My Page, Updates, Wikis, People, and Podcasts. File sharing is simpler, and a new Page Editor is added for easy customization. [20]
  • WebDAV File Sharing – Lion Server delivers wireless file sharing for clients that support WebDAV. Enabling WebDAV in Lion Server gives iOS users the ability to access, copy, and share documents on the server from applications such as Keynote, Numbers, and Pages. [20]
  • Profile Manager – Profile Manager delivers simple, profile-based setup and management for Mac OS X Lion, iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch devices. It also integrates with existing directory services and delivers automatic over-the-air profile updates using the Apple Push Notification service. [20][71]

User interface changes [ edit ]

  • Redesigned Aqua user interface elements, including buttons and progress bars. The red, yellow, and green buttons in the window decorations have also been made smaller, with a slightly changed design. [72]
  • Flexible window resizing from any corner or edge of the window, [73][74] similar to window resizing in Microsoft Windows and many window managers for X11.
  • The metal finish has also been slightly altered. It is a lighter shade of grey and features a speckled texture. [citation needed]
  • Scrollbar arrows have been removed. [75]
  • Scrolling is reversed by default, to act more like a touch screen device, so that content moves in the direction of finger movement on touch-pad or mouse (with the scrollbar moving in the opposite direction), rather than the scrollbar moving in the direction of finger movement (with the content moving in the opposite direction). Also, like in iOS, scrolling «bounces» when the scroll bar hits the top or bottom of the window. [76]
  • When resizing a window by clicking on the green button (left-top), a transform effect animates the enlargement. [citation needed]
  • New windows fly to the front (like opening an app in iOS). [77]
  • The dashboard is its own space in Mission Control, rather than in previous versions of OS X where the w >[78]

Dropped features [ edit ]

  • Save As[79] – replaced by Duplicate and Revert functions due to the introduction of Auto Save and Versions (only applies to applications modified to support Auto Save, such as TextEdit; applications not modified to support Auto Save, such as Microsoft Word, retain this functionality).
  • Front Row,[80] a media center application. The application has been copied into Lion by third-party users, however its incompatibility with iTunes 10.4 renders some features useless. [81]
  • Rosetta, software that makes possible the execution of PowerPC software on x86 hardware, is no longer available. [80] This disables some programs that ran on previous versions of Mac OS X. [82] Programs requiring Rosetta to operate are not allowed to be distributed via the Mac App Store. [83]
  • Adobe Flash Player and Apple’s Java Runtime Environment (JRE) are not included in new installations of Lion, but both can still be downloaded and installed manually. [80][84][85] Apple is no longer actively maintaining its JRE, but Software Update offers to download Snow Leopard’s JRE when a user tries to run a Java program and the JRE is not installed. [86] Programs using Java are not allowed to be distributed via the Mac App Store. [83]
  • iSync, software used for syncing contacts and calendars to third-party mobile phones, is no longer included; [87] however, iSync v3.1.2 from Snow Leopard continues to work. [citation needed]
  • Remote Install Mac OS X, software that allows OS X to be installed using the Remote Disk feature. Using Target Disk Mode, users can circumvent this omission. [88] This is replaced by the Recovery Partition, which does exactly the same thing but without needing an external disk, as long as the hard disk is not damaged.
  • Apple USB Modem is not compatible with Lion. [89]
  • QuickTime Streaming Server, software used to deliver v >[citation needed]
  • WPA Enterprise configuration for wireless networks was replaced by the requirement to obtain a configuration profile. [90]

Reception [ edit ]

Reception for OS X Lion has been mixed; complaints include a substantial backlash by «Pro» users with workflows affected by the Autosave/Revert workflow. [91] Other highly criticized decisions include the change to «natural scrolling», [92] h >[93] the omission of the iSync program necessary to synchronize a Mac with non-Apple mobile devices, [94] as well as abandoned functionality in Exposé [95] and Spaces. [96]

However, in an extensive review of the operating system, Ars Technica recommended Lion. [72] They noted that it feels like it is the start of a new line of operating systems that will continue to be influenced by Apple’s iOS platform. [72] The review also compared the introduction of Lion, along with its new conventions that change traditional ways of computing, with the original Mac OS X and when it replaced the >[72] Macworld called Lion a «radical revision», praising the changes made to the operating system to be more user friendly to new Mac users who are familiar with the iOS interface, while criticizing the limited utility of the interface. Ultimately, the magazine cons >[97] guardian.co.uk called Lion a substantial improvement from its predecessors and cons >[98]

On the other hand, Gizmodo stated that the new interface «feels like a failure» and concluded by saying that «it doesn»t feel like a must-have upgrade». [99] Ted Landau of MacObserver also had serious criticism of Lion, reversing his earlier praise of Autosave and writing, «Auto Save takes irritatingly long when working with large documents. Still others lament the loss of the Save As… command, noting that the new Duplicate option is not as convenient to use. The consensus is that none of this would matter much — if you could disable Auto Save. If you like how it works, leave things as is. Otherwise, get r >[91]

Due to Lion»s enhanced security features, including application sandboxing, Dino Dai Zovi, principal of security consultancy Trail of Bits and the coauthor (with Charles Miller) of The Mac Hacker’s Handbook, characterized Lion’s security as "a significant improvement, and the best way that I’ve described the level of security in Lion is that it’s Windows 7, plus, plus. I generally tell Mac users that if they care about security, they should upgrade to Lion sooner rather than later, and the same goes for Windows users, too." [100]